(Adopted at the Annual General Meeting, 2021-06-24)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science
La Société Canadienne des Sciences Judiciaires
Section 1: General
I.1.1 In these By-laws,
a) “Act” means the Canada Not-for-Profit Corporations Act or other pertinent legislation of the Parliament of Canada which shall be in force when these By-laws are passed;
b) “Board” means the Board of Directors of the Society;
c) “General Meeting” means an Annual General Meeting or a special meeting of the Society;
d) “Member in good standing” means an individual member entitled to vote at a General Meeting;
e) “Members” include Regular Members, Fellows, Emeritus Members, Provisional Members, Associate, Student Members, and Honorary Members;
f) “Membership Corporation” means a corporation that carries on its activities primarily for the benefit of its members;
g) “Notice” means written notice sent by mail to the member’s last address on file or by e-mail to the member’s last e-mail address on file;
h) “Ordinary Resolution” means a resolution that is not effective until it has been approved by a majority of the votes cast by the Members in good standing at a General Meeting;
i) “Special Resolution” means a resolution that is not effective until it has been approved by two-thirds of the votes cast by the Members in good standing at a General Meeting;
j) “Society” means the Canadian Society of Forensic Science : La Société Canadienne des Sciences Judiciaires;
k) The singular includes the plural and the plural includes the singular.
I.2.1 The Society shall be bilingual in that all official notices shall be in both the French and English languages and, wherever practicable, the business affairs of the Society shall be conducted in either official language or Members shall have the right to address General Meetings in the language of their choice.
I.3.1 The Society shall carry on its activities as a Membership Corporation.
I.4.1 The rules contained in the most recently revised edition of Robert’s Rules of Order shall govern the Society in all meetings of procedure to which they are applicable and in which they are not inconsistent with these By-laws and the Act.
I.4.2 Should Robert’s Rules of Order, Newly Revised give rise to any ambiguity in a matter, so that it fails to give precise instruction, the Chairperson shall have the final say in that matter.
Section 2: Membership
II.1.1 The Society shall consist of seven classes of Members as follows:
a) Student Members;
b) Provisional Members;
c) Regular Members;
e) Emeritus Members;
f) Honorary Members;
g) Associate Members.
II.2.1 Only Regular Members, Fellows and Emeritus Members are entitled to hold office in the Society and vote at General Meetings, but Honorary Members, Provisional Members, Associate Members and Student Members shall be entitled to attend all General Meetings and to participate therein.
Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Changes) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the By-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l), or (m).
II.2.2.A Provisional and Regular Membership in the Society shall be open to individuals who have demonstrated an active interest in forensic science and who have exhibited the qualities of related professional competence, integrity and good moral character. Active interest can be demonstrated by current or previous employment in a forensic discipline, by employment related to forensic science or by having made, in the opinion of the Membership Committee, a significant contribution to the field of forensic science.
II.2.2.B Student Membership in the Society shall be open to individuals who are enrolled in or have graduated in the last twelve months from a post-secondary institution program applicable to forensic science and who have exhibited the qualities of integrity and good moral character.
II.2.2.C The class of Fellow shall be open to a Regular Member who has actively participated in the affairs of the Society, so as to contribute to its aims and objectives and who has met the requirements of the Fellow Membership Class.
II.2.2.D Any person who is not otherwise a Member of the Society and who is deemed by the Board to have contributed significantly to the forensic science community may, upon recommendation of the Board, be elected an Honorary Member by Ordinary Resolution.
II.2.2.E Associate Membership in the society shall be open to individuals involved in the field of forensic science who do not qualify for regular membership and who have exhibited the qualities of integrity and good moral character.
II.2.3 Application for membership shall be made upon forms furnished by the Secretary and shall be endorsed by a Member in good standing.
II.2.4 An application fee, as determined by the Board, and a signed commitment to abide by the Society’s Rules of Professional Conduct shall accompany each application.
II.2.5A An applicant meeting the qualifications outlined in Article II.2.2.A and recommended by the Membership Committee and the Board may be elected a Provisional Member by Ordinary Resolution.
II.2.5.B An applicant meeting the qualifications outlined in Article II.2.2.B and recommended by the Membership Committee and the Board may be elected a Student Member by Ordinary Resolution.
II.2.6 Regular membership in the Society shall be by way of Provisional Membership only.
II.2.7 A person who has been a Provisional Member for a minimum of one year and who has been recommended for Regular Membership by the Board may be elected a Regular Member by Ordinary Resolution.
II.2.8 The membership of a Provisional Member who has not been elected a Regular Member before the end of the Second Annual General Meeting following election as a Provisional Member, is automatically terminated.
II.3.1.A Any Regular Member of the Society who has met the requirements of the Fellow Membership Class, may upon recommendation of the Membership Committee and the Board be elected a Fellow of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science by Ordinary Resolution.
II.3.1.B Any Regular Member of the Society who has made a valuable and distinguished contribution to Forensic Science and who has retired may, upon recommendation of the Board, be elected an Emeritus Member by Ordinary Resolution.
II.4.1 Upon being designated an Emeritus Member, the Board may, in its discretion, waive or modify the Member’s dues and such waiver or modification shall not affect the Member’s rights and privileges.
II.5.1 An Honorary Member or Provisional Member, or a Student Member may serve as a committee member with all the rights and privileges of a committee member including the right to vote in committee.
II.6.1 The amount of the annual dues of the Society shall be determined from time to time by the Annual General Meeting and shall be payable on or before January 1st of each year. It is the discretion of the Board to accept or amend a grace period for annual dues payment.
II.6.2 A Member who is in default of such payment for more the two months shall be notified in writing of such default by the Treasurer. Such notification shall be by ordinary mail or e-mail addressed to the defaulting Member’s last address as shown on the membership records.
II.6.3 If a Member in default as aforesaid fails to pay the arrears of dues within thirty days after the mailing of the above notice, membership is thereby automatically terminated.
II.6.4 Where a membership has been terminated as aforesaid, re-application for membership may be made if accompanied by an undertaking to pay all arrears of dues, or such lesser amount as shall be determined by the Board, and such person may be re-elected into the former class of membership in the Society.
II.7.1 Membership in the Society shall be terminated:
a) upon resignation;
b) expulsion for cause in the manner described in Article II.7.3;
c) upon failure to pay annual dues as described in Article II.6.3;
d) in accordance with Article II.2.8;
e) by failure to maintain any qualifications for membership described in this Section of the By-laws.
II.7.2 All the rights, privileges and claims of a Member cease to exist on the date of such termination, or death.
II.7.3 Membership in the Society is subject to being terminated for any cause deemed justifiable by the Board through a Special resolution of the Board at a duly constituted meeting of the Board but such termination does not become effective without a ratification by a General Meeting as provided in Article II.7.6.
II.7.4 Prior to termination as described in Article II.7.3, the Member in question shall be notified at least thirty days in advance of the time and place of the meeting of the Board at which the question of termination is to be considered.
II.7.5 The Member is entitled to a fair hearing at the meeting of the Board at which the question of termination is considered.
II.7.6 Any termination recommended by the Board must come before a General Meeting where it may be ratified by Ordinary Resolution.
II.7.7 If the Member presents the Secretary with a written request for a hearing bearing twenty signatures of Members in good standing at least ten days prior to the General Meeting at which the termination is to be considered, the Member shall be entitled to a hearing at said meeting.
Section 3: Meetings of members
III.1.1 The only persons entitled to be present at a meeting of members shall be members of the Society, the directors and the public accountant of the Society and such other persons who are entitled or required under any provision of the Act articles or By-laws of the Society to be present at the meeting. Any other person may be admitted only on the invitation of the chair of the meeting or by resolution of the members.
III.1.2 Special Meetings may be convened at any time and place by order of the Board, or by any member of the Board acting with the approval of a majority of the Board.
III.1.3 Any General Meeting may be held, for the totality or any portion of members attending, in its entirety or part thereof, by means of a telephonic, an electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during the meeting.
III.2.1 The Business of the Annual General Meeting shall include:
a) adoption of the Minutes of the last preceding Annual General Meeting and of any subsequent Special Meeting;
b) the President’s report;
c) the Society Office Report;
d) the election of Members;
e) the election of the President-Elect;
f) the Financial Statements and the Public Accountant’s report;
g) the adoption of resolutions;
h) the ratification of By-laws and amendments;
i) the election of Directors;
j) the appointment of the Public Accountant;
k) new business.
III.3.1 Notice of any General Meeting shall be given to the membership by telephonic, electronic or other communication facility, during a period of 21 to 35 days before the date of the meeting. If a member requests that the notice be given by non-electronic means, the notice will be sent by mail, courier or personal delivery.
In the case of an Annual General Meeting, such notice shall contain a statement notifying members that Financial Statements are available at the Society’s Head Office and that a free copy may be obtained on request.
Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Changes) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the By-laws of the Society to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.
III.4.1 Ten Members in good standing, of whom not more than two are members of the Board, shall constitute a quorum for transaction of business at any General Meeting.
III.4.2 If a quorum is not present at the opening of any General Meeting, or is not maintained during that meeting, the Members in good standing present may adjourn the Meeting to a fixed time and place and shall not transact any other business.
III.5.1 Voting at any General Meeting shall be only by Members in good standing present in person or, if relevant, able to communicate via the telephonic, electronic or other communication facility in place at the Meeting.
III.5.2 All questions proposed for consideration at a General Meeting shall be determined by a majority of the votes cast on the question, each Member in good standing being entitled to one vote. The presiding officer at any such meeting shall abstain from voting, but in the case of an equality of votes, shall have the deciding vote.
III.5.3A Voting at any General Meeting shall be by show of hands, except where a ballot is demanded by a voting Member. Such Member may demand a ballot either before a proposed vote by show of hands or after any vote by show of hands, and that Member shall be entitled to a vote on the desirability by the members of a vote by ballot.
III.5.3B If the majority of voting Members present at a General Meeting agree (by show of hands) that voting be by ballot, the presiding officer shall thereupon appoint scrutineers and direct that the vote be taken by ballot. The vote shall be so determined, and be in accordance with the report of the scrutineers. The result of the vote shall be reported to the Meeting by the presiding officer.
Section 4: Directors
IV.1.1 The affairs and activities of the Society shall be managed by a Board of twelve Directors who shall be elected at a General Meeting. Five of the Directors shall also serve as the Officers of the Society enumerated in Article V.1.1.
IV.2.1 Nominations for the election of directors shall be made by the way of a motion made by a member in good standing and seconded by another member in good standing at any general meeting of members.
IV.2.2 A director shall be elected for a term of three years commencing on the first day of July following the Annual General Meeting at which the election has occurred.
IV.2.3 A Director other than an Officer shall not serve more than two consecutive full terms of office.
IV.2.4 A Director shall be eligible for re-election after having vacated the position of Director for one full year.
IV.3.1 Termination of membership by a Director will also result in the vacating of his position, in accordance with Article II.7.1;
IV.4.1 There shall be at least two meetings of the Board in each calendar year at such time and place as determined by the President, or, if the president is unable to act, the President-Elect, or, if the President-Elect is unable to act, the Past President.
IV.4.2 The President, or the President-Elect acting on behalf of the President, or any five members of the Board may call other meetings of the Board from time to time.
IV.4.3 Notice of any meeting of the Board shall be given by the Secretary to the members of the Board at least two weeks in advance of the meeting.
IV.4.4 At all meetings of the Board, every question shall be decided by an Ordinary Resolution. In case of an equality of votes, the chair of the meeting in addition to an original vote shall have a second or casting vote.
IV.5.1 Directors, Officers and other Members shall not receive any stated remuneration for their services. The Board may however:
a) approve traveling and living expenses for any member or employee necessarily incurred in connection with carrying out the business of the Society;
b) approve special remuneration for any Member who undertakes any special work or mission on the Society’s behalf.
IV.6.1 The Board may exercise such powers as are not by the Act or by these By-laws required to be exercised by the membership at a General Meeting and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, shall:
a) elect the Secretary and Treasurer of the Society from amongst the elected Board members as provided in Article V.3.1;
b) manage the affairs and activities of the Society;
c) formulate the policies of the Society;
d) recommend applicants for membership for approval by a General Meeting;
e) have the power to appoint committees and determine their respective membership.
IV.6.2 The Board may appoint the following:
a) an employee to serve as Executive Secretary and such other employees as may from time to time be required;
b) a Legal Advisor who, if not a Regular Member of the Society, shall become an ex-officio Regular Member on appointment;
c) an Historian and Archivist.
IV.7.1 Every Director or Officer or other person who has undertaken or is about to undertake any liability on behalf of the Society (or any company controlled by it) and their heirs, executors and administrators, and their estate and effects, respectively, shall from time to time and at all times, be indemnified and saved harmless out of the funds of the Society from and against:
a) all liability, costs, charges and expenses whatsoever which such Director, Officer or other person sustains or incurs in or about any action, suit or proceedings which is brought, commenced or prosecuted against that Director, Officer or other person on, in or about the lawful execution of the duties of their office;
b) all other liabilities, costs, charges and expenses sustained or incurred in, or about, or in relation to the affairs of the Society, provided however that this indemnification shall not extend to any liability, costs, charges or expenses that are occasioned by such person’s own willful neglect or default, and provided always that this Article shall not be construed so as to limit or alter in any way the duty imposed upon a Director by sections 145 and 146 of the Act or the comparable section of any other effective legislation.
Section 5: Officers
V.1.1 There shall be the following Officers of the Society:
c) Past President;
V.1.2 No two offices shall be held by the same person.
V.1.3 The Officers shall hold office for one year, such term to commence on January 1st and to terminate on December 31st, or on such date as a successor in office is elected.
V.2.1 The President-Elect shall be elected to the Board at an Annual General Meeting by and from among Members in good standing for a mandate of three years and shall succeed annually in order to the offices of President and Past President. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IV.2.2, if the President-Elect was already a member of the Board, his mandate as a member of the Board shall be extended for a three year period by the virtue of his or her election.
V.2.2.A Where a vacancy occurs in the office of President, the President-Elect shall immediately succeed to the office of President and shall serve for the balance of the term and, in turn, also serve the successive annual terms as President and Past President.
V.2.2.B Where a vacancy occurs in the office of President- Elect, the Board shall elect a President-Elect from among its members.
V.2.2.C Where a vacancy occurs in the office of Past President, the next most immediate Past President able and willing to serve shall be appointed by the Board to complete the term of office.
V.3.1 The Secretary and Treasurer shall be elected annually by the Board from among its members. In the event of a vacancy occurring in either of these offices, the Board shall elect a replacement from among its members and such replacement shall serve for the balance of the term of office.
V.4.1 The President or, if the President is unable to act, the President-Elect, shall, subject to the limitations contained elsewhere in these By-laws:
a) preside at all General Meetings and all meetings of the Board;
b) be the chief executive officer of the Society;
c) be the chief spokesman for the Society and be responsible for all public statements made on behalf of the Society;
d) sit as an ex-officio member of any committee on the Society with the exception of the Nominating Committee;
e) appoint the Program Committee responsible for the Scientific Meeting;
f) call at least two meetings of the Board each year, as provided by Article IV.4.1.
V.4.2 It shall be the responsibility of the Secretary to:
a) have charge of all correspondence and records, except those relating exclusively to finance;
b) keep Minutes of meetings of the Society, the Board and the Executive Committee;
c) notify all Members of all General Meetings;
d) notify all members of all acts, orders, resolutions, votes, or other transactions of the Society affecting their membership or duties;
e) maintain a register of all Members;
f) submit to the Board and to the Annual General Meeting a report of the activities of the Secretary performed during the preceding year;
g) receive applications for membership and to transmit them to the Chair of the Membership Committee;
h) perform such other duties as may be designated by the Board from time to time.
V.4.3 It shall be the responsibility of the Treasurer to:
a) supervise the collection and keep on deposit the funds and securities of the Society;
b) keep a full, correct and clear record of all the financial transactions of the Society and support all disbursements with proper vouchers;
c) ensure that the funds of the Society are disbursed as directed by the Board;
d) notify Members in default of payment of dues pursuant to Article II.6.2 and advise the Secretary of the names of all persons whose memberships have been terminated thereunder;
e) prepare a financial statement which shall be submitted to the Society’s Public Accountant and to the Board prior to the Annual General Meeting in such manner and form that the Board may comply with Article IX.6.1;
f) perform such other duties as may be designated by the Board from time to time.
V.5.1 Contracts, documents or other instruments requiring the execution of the Society shall be signed by two Officers: the President or, if the President is unable to act, the President-Elect, and the Secretary or the Treasurer. Such documents shall be signed only upon resolutions of the Board and shall be binding upon the Society without any further authorization or formality.
Section 6: Executive Committee
VI.1.1 There shall be an Executive Committee of the Board consisting of the President, President-Elect, Past President, Secretary and Treasurer.
VI.1.2 The President or other officer designated by the President shall be the Chair of the Executive Committee.
VI.2.1 Meetings of the Executive Committee may be held at such time and place as determined by the President or other Officer designated by the President, provided that at least forty-eight hours notice of such meeting shall be given to the members of the Executive Committee.
VI.2.2 The Executive Committee shall have and execute powers and duties of the Board except that it shall not:
a) exercise any of the powers enumerated in Articles IV.6.2 and V.5.1;
b) submit to the membership any question requiring the approval of a General Meeting;
c) purport to fill a vacancy among the Officers or Directors or in the office of the Public Accountant;
d) purport to adopt, amend or repeal By-laws;
e) purport to exercise any other power which is required by the Act to be exercised by the Board as a whole.
VI.3.1 A quorum for the Executive Committee shall be a majority of the Officers.
Section 7: Standing Committees
VII.1.1 The Society may by Special Resolution constitute any standing committee to act in an advisory capacity to the Society. Without restricting the generality of the foregoing, there shall be the following Standing Committees:
VII.2.1 With the exception of the Nominating Committee, whose Chair and composition are provided for in Article VII.6.1, each Standing Committee shall have a Chair appointed by the Board and any number of additional members also appointed by the Board.
VII.2.2 The Chair of a Standing or a Special Committee may be authorized by the Board to appoint additional members to such committee.
VII.2.3 Members of Standing or Special Committees other than the Nominating and Membership Committees need not be Members of the Society, but must at all times be composed of a majority of Members in good standing in the Society.
VII.3.1 A majority of members of any committee shall constitute a quorum for that committee meeting.
VII.4.1 The Chair of a Committee shall attend Board meetings at the request of the Board and shall report to the Board at least once a year.
VII.5.1 With the exception of the Nominating Committee, members of each Standing Committee shall continue to serve until their appointment is revoked by the Board or their resignation.
VII.6.1 The Nominating Committee shall consist of the immediate Past President as Chair, and the four most recent Past Presidents able and willing to serve.
VII.7.1 The duties of the Standing Committees are:
A) MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE
i) In addition to any other duties that the Board may assign, the Membership Committee shall consider all applications for membership and make recommendations to the Board;
ii) Only Members in good standing may serve on the Membership Committee.
B) PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE
i) In addition to any other duties that the Board may assign, the Publications Committee shall be responsible for all official publications of the Society, including the Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal;
ii) The Committee shall appoint the Editor or Editors of the Journal and any other official publications.
C) FINANCE COMMITTEE
i) In addition to any other duties that the Board may assign, the Finance Committee shall advise the Board on all matters related to the Management of the finances for the Society including:
a) membership dues;
b) cost controls;
c) short and long term investment prospects:
d) other revenue raising matters;
e) preparation of a yearly budget forecast.
ii) The Treasurer, if not named by the Board as the Chair or a member of the Finance Committee, shall be an ex-officio member of this committee;
iii)At least one member of the Finance Committee must be a non-member of the Board.
D) NOMINATING COMMITTEE
i) It will be the duty of the Nominating Committee:
a) to nominate at least one member for the office of President-Elect;
b) to nominate at least one member for each Board vacancy;
ii) Members of the Nominating Committee must be members in good standing.
E) AWARDS COMMITTEE
i) In addition to other duties the Board may assign, the Awards Committee shall advise and make recommendation to the Board on all Awards and Citations given by the Society;
ii) The Committee shall formulate rules and procedures governing its activity, its conduct and criteria of each award. Such rules and procedures shall be subject to the approval of the Board.
VII.8.1 The President shall appoint a Program Committee which, in addition to other duties assigned by the President, shall be responsible for arranging the accommodations, equipment, meeting rooms, social activities and other requirements for the Scientific Meeting including the development, organization, publicity and conduct of the scientific sessions.
VII.9.1 The President, with the approval of the Board, may appoint such Special Committees as may from time to time be necessary to assist in the conduct of the affairs of the Society. The Chair of a Special Committee must be a member in good standing.
Section 8: Scientific Sections
VIII.1.1 Any ten Members in good standing mutually interested in a recognized specific field of Forensic Science, may apply to the Board to be designated a Section of the Society for the purpose of promoting the interests of that field and fostering its future development.
VIII.2.1 An application to form a Section shall be submitted in writing to the Secretary at least 30 days prior to the Annual General Meeting. The Board shall review the application and shall recommend the acceptance or rejection of the application to the membership at the Annual General Meeting.
VIII.3.1 Membership in a Section shall, with the approval of the Board, be open to any Member regardless of class of membership.
VIII.3.2 Members may be members of only one Section at a time, and any change of Section membership shall require the approval of the Board. All members of a Section shall enjoy full privileges within the Section, including the right to vote, but only Members in good standing may hold office in a Section.
VIII.4.1 Sections may hold business meetings at any time or place but shall hold Scientific Sessions only in conjunction with the Annual General Meeting of the Society, except with the approval of the Board.
VIII.4.2 There shall be an Annual Business Meeting of each Section and a Chair, Secretary and such other officers as may be deemed necessary shall be elected from among the members of the Section who are Members in good standing.
VIII.4.3 The Secretary of the Society shall be informed of the names of the Section Officers by the Section Chair.
VIII.5.1 Funds for financing the activities of a Section may be allotted by the Board after the submission to the Board of a written request in budget or spending-plan form.
VIII.6.1 An annual report in writing shall be submitted by the Chair of each Section to the Board prior to the Annual General Meeting.
VIII.7.1 A Section may be dissolved upon the recommendation of the Board and ratification by the membership at an Annual General Meeting.
Section 9: Corporate Finances
IX.1.1 The President (or if the President is unable to act, the President-Elect) and the Treasurer or the Secretary are authorized for and in the name of the Society:
a) to draw, accept, sign, make, endorse, negotiate and dispose of all or any bills of exchange, promissory notes, cheques and orders for the payment of money;
b) to pay and receive all monies and give vouchers for the same;
c) to receive from a financial institution any negotiable instruments or other property and assets of the Society of every kind and give receipts therefor;
d) to execute any agreement with or authority to a financial institution relating to the banking business of the Society either generally or with regard to any particular transaction;
e) to discount, negotiate, deposit with or transfer to a financial institution for credit to the account of the Society all or any bills of exchange, promissory notes, cheques or orders for the payment of money and other negotiable instruments and for the said purpose to endorse the same or any of them;
f) to receive all paid cheques and other debit vouchers charged to any account of the Society and give receipts therefor;
g) except as otherwise provided in these By-laws, to transact generally with a financial institution any transactions they see fit.
IX.2.1 Promissory notes or other negotiable paper may be signed on behalf of the Society by the Officers authorized to sign negotiable instruments on its behalf for the money so borrowed and interest thereon as may be agreed upon, and the same and all renewals thereof shall be binding upon the Society without the financial institution requiring evidence of any resolution of the Board.
IX.3.1 All contracts, deeds, grants, assurances and documents reasonably required by a financial institution, or their counsel, for all or any of the purposed aforesaid, may be executed and carried into effect by the proper Officers of the Society as provided for in Article V.5.1.
IX.4.1 A Public Accountant shall be appointed annually by Special Resolution of the Annual General Meeting, on the recommendation of the Board, to perform a financial review engagement.
IX.5.1 The fiscal year of the Society shall run from the 1st day of January to the 31st day of December of each year.
IX.6.1 The Board shall place before the Members at every Annual General Meeting:
a) the financial statement for the immediately preceding year;
b) the report of the Public Accountant; and
c) any further information respecting the financial position of the Society as required by the By-laws and resolutions of the Board.
IX.6.2 The Society shall keep at its Head Office a copy of all financial statements and make these statements available on request to any Member, group of Members, or their authorized agents.
Section 10: By-laws, Amendments and Effective Date
X.1.1 The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these By-laws shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remaining provisions of these By-laws.
X.1.2 The accidental omission to give any notice to any member, director, officer, public accountant, member of a committee or a scientific section, or the non-receipt of any notice by any such person where the Society has provided notice in accordance with these By-laws or any error in any such notice not affecting its substance shall not invalidate any action taken at any meeting to which to notice pertained or otherwise founded on such notice.
X.2.1 The Board may make propositions to amend or repeal any by-laws that regulate the activities or affairs of the Society. Theses propositions for amendment or repeal are only effective on the confirmation of the members by special resolution and in the form in which they were confirmed.
This section does not apply to a by-law that requires a special resolution of the members according to subsection 197(1) (fundamental change) of the Act.
X.3.1 These By-laws shall be effective when voted on by a special resolution of the members of the Society.